segunda-feira, 14 de maio de 2012

Bodybuildings Latest Scam

By Fred Koch, P-SCE, Filipe Teixeira, P-PTS, TBI-CSN
That seems a strange title for an article, but this is another one of my pet peeves. The new trend, scam, marketing tool is to train each body part one time a week. That is what you read on all the web pages and in all the articles these days. Then I began working with Filipe Teixeira, from Portugal who is a nutritional consultant and has a biochemical background. I now found the guy to help me with the science of writing this article. In this article we will take a step back and look at this new “training method” and see if science and experience can give us a better incite in to this question.


Before I even start let me tell you what you will get from reading this article. A way to train and get results twice as fast.
First we have to look at the bodybuilding industry and the people training. Magazines and web pages have to print articles every month, so any new type of training gives them another new subject to write articles around.


The second and I think the most obvious reason for this latest trend, is the bodybuilder himself. Let’s face it we all are lazy. We want results a fast as possible with the least amount of work. This quick fix mentality has been drummed into us for years by the magazines, and especially the supplement companies. First was HIT, one set to failure the Nautilus type of training was talked about for years. 


So when A NEW GET BIG AND TRAIN LESS METHOD comes into view everyone is ready to jump right on it. We feel that this training method of working one body part a week fits this definition perfectly.

Before we even get into the science of why this is wrong let’s take a look back at the old days of bodybuilding. First there were guys like Steve Reeves and Bill Pearl. These guys had no science to back them up, but they all trained about the same way, at the beginning before formal gyms were open they trained each body part 3xs a week.


Then the next group like Pearl started to open gyms, they developed more equipment like cables and pulley machines which gave them more ways to hit each body part. So they began to train each body part 2xs a week. These early bodybuilders could feel the right way to train from years of experimenting in the gym. Sure, as more and more money came into bodybuilding some of the early guys did some steroids, maybe 3 months before a contest, but training hard and eating good was always the way to the top.


Then as the years rolled by and the money got better and especially the drugs got better bodybuilders depended more and more on the drugs for results and thus started to pop up all these “new training methods” Do you seriously think any Pro Bodybuilder, did 1 set to failure and won the Olympia? People fell for it just for the same reason we are talking about now.


Thus we have the history of training. If you want to see the evolution of what bodybuilders looked like through the years just go to the IFBB hall of fame and see for yourself.



Now let’s take a look at some of the science of the human body and what that says.

One of the reasons bodybuilders point out to train 1 body part a week is glycogen repletion/storage. Well first of all, what is glycogen?
Glycogen is basically a branched glucose polymer.
It is technically composed of glucosyl residues, mostly linked together by α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages. In simples terms it’s a macromolecule built of several glucose units. Glycogen synthesis depends directly on a primer called glycogenin; this is a polypeptide of 332 amino acids that will regulate your glycogen synthesis from regular glucose. 2 other enzymes come to play in regulating your glycogen; these are Glycogen phosphorylase and Glycogen synthase.


When your body needs to use or store energy these are the prime players, remember that both catalyze nonequilibrium reaction, and are subject to control by allosteric effectors and convalent modification. 


You can find glycogen in all body cells but it’s mainly stored on your muscles and liver.


Had to throw in some fancy words just for fun and to show the proof.

So how is glycogen stored? It’s stored more or less like this:
300g to 400g in muscle
70g to 100g in the liver
15g to 20g is basically in your blood.

You can conclude that you have more or less 1500-2080 kcal of energy in stock as carbohydrates. Well that is quite some capacity to store energy, don’t you think?


So, what happens to glycogen when you train? Off course, it’s used… but how?
Apparently you can produce energy from high energetic compounds found within the cell called phosphagen, to make this easier we are talking of ATP/CP (meaning CP, creatine phosphate). The big problem is that you can only maintain your cell working on this fuel until more or less 10 seconds (you aren’t using glycogen at this stage)… pretty short isn’t it? Well, you will then have to use other source…
in this case lactic anaerobic system… Lactate is a way to produce energy regenerating (phosphorylation) ATP and is converted through and enzyme called LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) you have all seen this enzyme probably in your blood work. Basically it converts Pyruvate into Lactate and allows you to produce energy from there.

A brief resume...
You can obtain ATP from 3 sources:
1-Anaerobic/alactic source (no glycogen, using ATP/CP)
2-Anaerobic/lactic source (using glycogen/glucose as fuel)
3-Aerobic source (using macronutrients).

All these 3 sources work together and overlap eventually. However time and intensity will choose the most appropriate and dominant source.


In mammals you can restore ATP molecules from 3 physiological pathways:
1-Oxidation pathway (aerobic process using fats and proteins)
2-Glycolytic pathway----» Anaerobic Glucose (through the production of lactic acid) and Aerobic Glucose (energy production using oxygen and glucose through the TCA cycle)
3-Phosphagen pathway (using ATP/CP as energy source, at this point no oxygen or glycogen is involved)

So… what do we have in bodybuilding? We mainly use Anaerobic Alactic System and Anaerobic Lactic System, right?

Let’s see what science tells you about timing:


ATP/CP can be restored in 3/5 minutes
Lactic Acid in muscle and blood restored in 1-2 hours
Vitamins and enzymes require more or less 24 hours to be restored
Glycogen restocking in muscle can take until 48 hours in prolonged exercise, but in strength training 24 hours should be enough.

Then comes the tricky part, which is the nervous system recovery. When you stimulate a muscle the brain sends nerve impulses to perform contraction. Thus, the nervous system also needs recovery. Neurological recovery can be attained in more or less 48 hours.


These are the two prime pathways of recovery. Then you add the testosterone/steroid factors that will have a word on protein synthesis and of course recovery.
What about athletes who use steroids?


This has been something that has been raised, athletes that use steroids train harder, they have bigger muscles, so they spend a lot more energy per training session. That is true. However anabolic hormones (not only steroids) fasten your ability to recover through several physiological mechanisms. So if you train harder, in simple maths you spend more energy. However if you are training harder, but the same compound that makes you stronger also makes you recover faster, doesn’t it make you energy depletion/repletion turnover very close to a drug free athlete?


Oh ya, one more factor for you to consider, detraining. Detraining is when you wait too long to train a muscle it starts to get weaker. Are you ready for this? The muscles start to detrain after 5 or 6 days. So when you are training each body part one day a week your body is starting to detrain, this means getting weaker before you train it again.


Ask yourself this last thing, would you run until you drop on the ground exhausted and then wait a week and do it again and expect to get results?
We strongly believe that an athlete can fully recover in 24/48 hours especially a trained bodybuilder with years of physiological adaptation. Remember, the more you stress your body in one way, the more he will adapt. That’s why strength training has to be cyclic to avoid plateau states. Your neurological system will adapt, your enzymes will adapt, even your myosin gets thicker in order to force adaptation (this is pure chronic hypertrophy).
What we have here is our view of this latest one body part a week method of training.


So to answer to question how I do get results 2xs as fast. Well, it is simple. Since you now have a clearer picture that your body will recover for 2xs a week training, it only stands to reason that with twice the workouts, your results will show twice as fast.

The routine we will be writing on in the future?
Day 1: Chest, shoulders, triceps
Day 2: Back, Biceps
Day 3: Legs, abs
Day 4: Chest, shoulders, triceps
Day 5: Back, Biceps
Day 6: Legs, abs
Day 7: Grow





Fred Koch, P-SCE is the International Director for Tudor Bompa Institute, TBI, one of the world’s top certifications systems.
He is also Adjunct Professor of Theory and Methodology of Training at the Sport University of Camaguey (Cuba)












Filipe Teixeira
Direcção Técnica-Body Temple, Lda
The Tudor Bompa Institute, Portugal.
Nutrition & Performance Department of TBI.





As opiniões aqui contidas apenas reflectem a opinião do autor e não necessáriamente da empresa Body Temple Lda/Tudor Bompa Institute. Consulte sempre o seu médico ou profissional de saúde antes de enveredar por qualquer suplemento, plano alimentar ou tratamento.





References:
[1] Devlin, Thomas (2010). Textbook of Biochemistry with clinical correlations. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[2] Shils, Maurice et al (2006). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
[3] Antonio, Jose et al (2008). Essentials of Sport Nutrition and Supplements. USA: Humana Press.
[4] Ivy, John et al (2004). Nutrient Timing: The Future of Sports Nutrition. USA: Basic Health Publications, inc.
[5] Yesalis, Charles (1993). Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. USA: Human Kinetics.
[6] Bompa, Tudor et al (2003). Serious Strength training 2nd edition. USA: Human Kinetics.
[7] Bompa, Tudor et al (2005). Periodization Training for Sports 2nd Edition. USA: Human Kinetics.
[8] Baechle, Thomas et al (2008). Bioenergetics of Exercise and Training, in Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. USA: Human Kinetics.
[9] Kadi, Fawzi et al (2004). The effects of heavy resistance training and detraining on satellite cells in human skeletal muscles. J.  Physiol. 558.3 pp (2004) 1005-1012.
[10] Kerksick, Chad et al (2008). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2008, 5:17
[11] Blazevich, AJ. (2006). Effects of physical training and detraining, immobilisation,
growth and aging on human fascicle geometry. Sports Med. 2006;36(12):1003-17.
[12] Terzis G, Stratakos et al (2008). Throwing performance after resistance training and detraining. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Jul;22(4):1198-204.
[13] Dennis R. Taaffe et al (2009). Alterations in muscle attenuation following detraining and retraining in resistance trained older adults. Gerontology. 2009 ; 55(2): 217–223.
[14] Nielsen, J. et al (2011). Human skeletal muscle glycogen utilization in exhaustive exercise: Role of subcellular localization and fibre type. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 4.
[15] Casey, A et al (1995). Glycogen resynthesis in human muscle fibre types following exercise-induced glycogen depletion. J Physiol. 1995 Feb 15;483 ( Pt 1):265-71.
[16] Pascoe, D. et al (1996). Muscle glycogen resynthesis after short term, high intensity exercise and resistance exercise. Sports Med. 1996 Feb;21(2):98-118.





Direcção Técnica-Body Temple, Lda
The Tudor Bompa Institute, Portugal.
Nutrition & Performance Department of TBI.







As opiniões aqui contidas apenas reflectem a opinião do autor e não necessáriamente da empresa Body Temple Lda/Tudor Bompa Institute. Consulte sempre o seu médico ou profissional de saúde antes de enveredar por qualquer suplemento, plano alimentar ou tratamento.

Sem comentários:

Enviar um comentário